Art History (ARTH)

ARTH 101     Understand Art-Ancient to 1400     3 Credit Hours

Full Course Title: Understanding Western Art from Ancient to Medieval- This course asks the question-what does art tell us about the cultures that make it? The course investigates how culture, religion, and social structures manifest themselves in artworks created in the ancient world, for instance in Egypt or Greece, through the dawn of the Renaissance. Students are introduced to the key terms, concepts, and analytical skills that allow us to think critically about the importance of art during this period of time.

ARTH 102     Understanding Art 1400 to Now     3 Credit Hours

Full Course Title: Understanding Western Art from the Renaissance to Now- This course traces the development of European and American art from the revival of classical humanism in the Italian Renaissance toward the rise of consumer culture during the twentieth century. Students explore key works of Western art from Michelangelo to Andy Warhol. Students are introduced to the key terms, concepts, and analytical skills that allow us to think critically about the cultural importance of art from 1400 to the present.

ARTH 103     Arts of Asia     3 Credit Hours

This course is an introduction to the visual arts of three Asian civilizations: India, China, and Japan. Since this is a survey, the focus will be placed on major monuments that are characteristic of these artistic traditions. To better understand the works of art, the cultural milieu including religion, philosophy, and parallel arts will be considered. (F, W).

ARTH 104     Arts of the Middle East     3 Credit Hours

From the eighth century, a new religious community with no developed artistic heritage spread rapidly over the ancient empires of the near and middle east and as far west as Spain and Hungary. Appropriating established forms and traditions, Muslim cultures created a brilliant system of religious and secular art that reveals national diversity and an underlying unity of purpose. This course provides an introduction to the visual traditions of Muslim cultures. (YR).

ARTH 106     Architecture & Society in Western Civilization     3 Credit Hours

Full Course Title: Architecture & Society in Western Civilization- This course examines how architecture and the built environment both reflect and shape the societies that constructed them. Through a survey of major works of architecture from Antiquity to the present, students will learn about the technical, functional, and aesthetic considerations that determine why buildings look the way they do. Special attention is given to the uses of architecture, engineering innovations, and design choices. (F, W).

ARTH 221     Ancient Monuments then and Now     3 Credit Hours

This course examines the "biographies" of three iconic ancient architectural monuments: the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the Parthenon in Athens, and the Colosseum in Rome. We will explore the design, engineering, and original functions of these buildings. We will also investigate how people's preceptions of and interactions with these monuments changed over time, up to and including modern tourism. (F,YR)

ARTH 241     Encountering the Renaissance     3 Credit Hours

Full Course Title: Encountering the Renaissance: Art, Global Exploration, and Social Reform. This class examines the Renaissance through the study of globalization, science and technology, religious reform, and their impact on the visual arts. Students will learn about such topics as the exploration of Africa, Asia, and the Americas, the invention of the printing press, and the revival Classical Art and humanistic learning. (YR)

ARTH 261     Art and Film     3 Credit Hours

Throughout the twentieth-century, painters and sculptors have turned towards the medium of film to make art. This course examines the close relationship between film and visual art when art influences cinema and cinema influences art. Students analyze a movie by a selected filmmaker every week. In addition, concise texts by filmmakers, film historians, and art historians provide context for the development of experimental montage techniques, the relevance of visual art strategies to the art of film, and the discussion of intellectual and societal issues. (OC)

ARTH 303     Exploring Art in the Community     3 Credit Hours

You will explore area libraries, museums, and galleries (their physical holdings and virtual resources) to develop skills in researching and writing about art, documents, and material artifacts for diverse audiences. Ways of researching, interpreting, and presenting art or material artifacts to diverse audiences in various formats whether for display, publication, or virtual presentation are the focus of class assignments that result in a portfolio. (AY).

ARTH 304     Studies in Detroit Culture     3 Credit Hours

This course is an attempt to define a modern cultural history of Detroit. Taught by two faculty members, the emphasis of the course will vary but the following aspects of the city's cultural history will be covered in some detail: its literature, arts, music, and architecture; its social conditions and broader American culture context. (AY).

ARTH 305     The Arts & Culture of Detroit     3 Credit Hours

This interdisciplinary course explores the modern and contemporary cultural history of Detroit, examining the ways in which various population groups have been creative from the nineteenth century to the present. The course highlights the work of architects, designers, photographers, visual artists, poets, and musicians, and situates them in the broader cultural context of American art and history. (OC).

ARTH 311     Art of China     3 Credit Hours

An introduction to representative works of art produced in China from the Neolithic era down to modern times. Examination of the artifact's cultural context will be emphasized, including the study of philosophy (Confucianism and Daoism) and religion (Buddhism).

ARTH 312     Art of Japan     3 Credit Hours

An introduction to representative works of art produced in Japan from the Neolithic era down to modern times. The artifact's cultural context will be examined including religious practice (Shinto and Buddhism), influence from abroad, and other artistic developments in literature, music, and theatre.

ARTH 313     Chinese Painting     3 Credit Hours

This course is a survey of the painting of China from the earliest examples found in tombs through works influenced by the West during the modern period. The course focuses on selected artists who serve as representatives of major traditions of China's cultural and artistic heritage. Students will be introduced to Chinese philosophy and relevant literary genres that provide a context for the development of Chinese painting. (AY).

ARTH 315     Early Chinese Art and Culture     3 Credit Hours

This course covers the art and material culture of China from the Neolithic through the Han dynasty. Topics include the visual arts used in palaces and tombs, religious art, and the rise of new technologies. It incorporates archaeological discoveries that have fundamentally transformed our understanding of Chinese history and culture, including evidence of people who lived at the center and also those at the periphery. Students will analyze literary and philosophical texts in translation to enhance understanding of the cultural context. (OC).

ARTH 319     Egyptian Art     3 Credit Hours

The art of the Ancient world is examined through an intensive review of the visual traditions of Egypt: its monumental architecture, sculpture, painting and decorative artifacts. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 321     Greek Art     3 Credit Hours

This course explores the art and architecture of the ancient Greek world, from the Bronze Age through the Hellenistic period. During the roughly two thousand years covered by this course, the Greeks came into contact with many peoples and societies, and experienced profound changes in politics and religion. These will be part of our examination of Greek art, architecture, and archaeology, to reach an understanding the importance of visual media in Greek society and appreciate the interrelationships between art, politics, religion, and culture. (AY).

ARTH 322     Roman Art     3 Credit Hours

This course explores Roman sculpture, painting, and architecture from around the entire Mediterranean world and investigates how the Romans emulated the arts of other cultures, while expressing its own values and priorities. It will examine the close connections between art, politics, and personal identity, and investigate how Romans used their understanding of engineering to create new ways of experiencing space. Finally, as the pagan era closes on the Roman Empire, the course will also look at how classical cultural traditions are transformed into the roots of Christian art. (AY).

ARTH 327     Gods, Myth and Worship     3 Credit Hours

Full Course Titile: Gods, Myth and Worship in Classical Art- This course examines the way that gods, goddesses, heroes, and myths are depicted in Greek and Roman art, and how they were central to the religious and cultural life of these civilizations. We study the art, architecture, literature, and archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome as we explore how religious priorities, social needs, and political ideologies shaped the artistic choices behind the reprensentations of deities and legendary figures and stories.

ARTH 331     Erly Christian Byzan Art     3 Credit Hours

Borrowing its formal language from late antiquity and its symbolism from other mystery cults, the art of early Christianity emerged from the Roman catacombs to monumental expression under emperors Constantine and Justinian. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 332     Early Med and Romanesque Art     3 Credit Hours

A study of the dynamic interplay between barbarian, Christian and classical Mediterranean influences in the early Medieval period with a consideration of the art and architecture of the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela and of the crusader kingdoms in the Holy Land. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 333     Gothic Art and Architecture     3 Credit Hours

A survey of the architecture, sculpture and stained glass of the great cathedrals of Europe, focusing on Chartres, Amiens, Reims, and Bourges. A study of the patrons, builders, the new technology they employed and the cities in which they worked as well as an analysis of the emergence of naturalism in medieval manuscript illumination and panel painting. (AY).

ARTH 334     The 14th Century     3 Credit Hours

This is a course that examines the art and architecture of Europe in the 14th century: one of the great transitional periods in the history of western art. Beginning with the new developments in 13th-century Italian art by such artists as Giovanni Pisano and Giotto, the course charts the pattern of these developments in northern European countries as well. (OC).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 335     Women in Medieval Art     3 Credit Hours

Women have often been regarded as the second sex of the middle ages due to the misogynistic attitudes of that era. Recent scholarship, however, has unearthed a significantly more complex picture. Through a study of visual representations of women in medieval art, this course will examine women's roles in the creation and patronage of art and literature, economic and family issues, and women's participation in new and innovative forms of religious piety.

ARTH 341     Art&Arch in Early Ren Florence     3 Credit Hours

This course examines the city of Florence as a work of art, as well as masterpieces of Florentine sculpture, painting and architecture of the Early Renaissance (fifteenth century). Statuary, reliefs and tombs; altarpieces, fresco cycles and mythological pictures; churches and palaces are all studied within the context of the technical, philosophical, political and cultural developments of the quattrocento. The ideals of the Florentine Republic, Humanism, Neo-Platonism, and Millenarianism provide the historical and intellectual background for the study of these works of art and architecture. Issues of patronage, placement, restoration, art criticism, women's roles in society and reception will also be explored. (OC).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103

ARTH 342     High Renaissance and Mannerism     3 Credit Hours

A study of the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael, masters of the High Renaissance in Florence and Rome, and an examination of the Mannerists, a new generation whose art displayed a modern accent on self-expression and abstraction. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 343     Renaissance & Reformation Art     3 Credit Hours

This course surveys the religious and political forces that shaped art produced north of the Alps during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Through the study of artworks by such masters as Van Eyck, Dürer, and Bruegel, students examine the connections between art and devotional practices, the rise of secular imagery and humanism, and the impact of the art of Italy. Special attention is also given to the role that art played during the Protestant Reformation and to the development of printmaking. (AY).

ARTH 344     Italian Renaissance Sculpture     3 Credit Hours

A study of freestanding and relief sculpture during the Italian Renaissance, with particular attention to major artistic centers like Florence, Rome, and Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries. By examining such forms as colossal statuary, equestrian sculpture, tomb monuments, garden sculpture, and portrait busts, the course will address the function of art within the public sphere, the relationship between civic sculpture and political ideology, the re-elevation of sculpture from a mechanical art to a liberal art, and the role artistic individuality and technical proficiency. Artists addressed will include Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrocchio, Antico, Riccio, Bertoldo, Michelangelo, Cellini, and Giambologna.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 351     Southern Baroque Art     3 Credit Hours

A study of the art of the seventeenth century in Italy and Spain, focusing upon Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Guercino, Reni, Cortona, Gaulli, Murillo, Zurbaran, and Velasquez, among others. (OC).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 352     Northern Baroque Art     3 Credit Hours

Study of the art of the seventeenth century in France, Flanders and Holland, with emphasis on Poussin, Georges de la Tour, the Le Nain brothers, Lebrun, Rubens, Van Dyck, Van Ruisdael, Vermeer, and Rembrandt. (OC).

ARTH 360     Art of Glass     3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on glass as a medium and an art form. From Roman times to the present day, the unique qualities of glass have excited artists and craftsmen to make vessels, sculptures, and architectural ornamentation. The course traces the form and function of glassworks, focusing particularly on the historical trajectory of glass from ancient vessels and medieval stained glass, to the development of "art glass" in the nineteenth century, to contemporary objects. The course is based on lectures, discussion, and readings. Students are required to attend several field trips for "hands-on" work with objects. Enrollment is limited to 15 students.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 361     American Art     3 Credit Hours

A study of American painting, sculpture, and architecture from the colonial period to the present. In this survey of an arts tradition that has greatly depended upon developments in Europe, efforts will be made to identify what is American about American art. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 362     Impressionism and Post-Impressionism     3 Credit Hours

An examination of the origins of modern painting and sculpture in the art of the major Impressionists (Manet, Monet, Degas, Renoir) and Post-Impressionists (Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin, Van Gogh). (OC).

ARTH 363     Arts of the Twentieth Century     3 Credit Hours

Did you know that you can make art by buying a snow shovel, hanging it, and signing it? This course looks at the ways in which modern artists such as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, or Andy Warhol have reinvented what we consider as art. In addition to painting, sculpture, and architecture, this class studies the role of new media (photography, film, video) and highlights the importance of performance and sound in the visual arts of the twentieth century. (OC).

ARTH 364     Picasso     3 Credit Hours

A critical examination of Pablo Picasso's art that chronicles the artist's achievements as a painter, sculptor, draftsman, printmaker, and ceramist. Lectures and readings are directed to positioning Picasso's masterworks in relationship to his art as a whole and in the context of twentieth-century art. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 365     Modern Architecture     3 Credit Hours

A survey of European and American architecture from the Chicago School to Post-Modernism. The course will trace the stylistic history of modern architecture while considering parallel issues of theory, social context, and building technology. Major architects studied will be Sullivan, Wright, Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, and Johnson. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 366     The Modern Print     3 Credit Hours

A history of western printmaking from Post-Impressionism to the present. The course will examine the relationship of printmaking to major movements of the day, the impact of modern technology on traditional print processes, and the developing notion of printmaking as an integral form of expression for the modern painter and sculptor. Special emphasis will be placed on the contributions of Gauguin, Munch, Picasso, Johns, and Stella. (OC).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 367     Contemporary Art     3 Credit Hours

An examination of the most recent developments in modern art. In addition to painting and sculpture, consideration will be given to related forms of expression in performance art, photography, and video. (OC).

ARTH 368     Global History of Photography     3 Credit Hours

This course studies photography from its inception in the nineteenth century to now. Course readings, lectures, and discussions address photography’s global histories as commercial practice, social text, artistic medium, journalistic style, and technological foray into the digital age. Students acquire the basic vocabulary of photography criticism and become familiar with a wide range of photographic genres and styles. (OC).

ARTH 375     Urban Design Perspectives     3 Credit Hours

This course explores the ways in which urban design both creates and reflects past and present urban conditions, cultures, and spatial relationships. The course will look at the built environment architecturally, aesthetically, and anthropologically in order to highlight the ever changing complexities of urban spheres. The placement and design of buildings and public spaces, and the resulting human interactions in those spaces, will be explored in comparative contexts.

ARTH 384     Islamic Architecture     3 Credit Hours

This course is a comprehensive study of history and development of Islamic architecture from its birth in the seventh century to the present time. The course is designed to explain major characteristics of Islamic architecture through the study and analysis of major monumental buildings both religious and secular: Mosques, Madrasas (schools), Mausoleums, Palaces, and other buildings. Detailed analysis also will be applied to different types of art associated with these buildings, such as wall painting, stucco work, wood carving, sculpture, mosaic, and calligraphy.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 105

Can enroll if Level is Undergraduate

ARTH 385     Islamic Decorative Arts     3 Credit Hours

This course in an in-depth investigation of the decorative arts of the Islamic Middle East from the seventh through the eighteenth century including the lands of Islamic Spain and North Africa and extending east to Afghanistan. The course traces the development of decorative styles in objects of daily and courtly life, particularly ceramics, metal work, glass, wood and ivory carving, textiles and rugs. The central role played by calligraphy in all of the arts in emphasized as well as in manuscript production and the Arts of the Book. As a religion, but also a way of life, Islam fostered a distinctive artistic production reflected in these decorative arts.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106 or RELS 201

ARTH 390     Topics in Art History     3 Credit Hours

Examination of problems and issues in selected areas of art history. Title as listed in the Schedule of Classes will change according to content. Course may be repeated for credit when topics differ. (OC).

ARTH 399     Independent Studies     1 to 3 Credit Hours

Readings and research assignments in history of art selected in accordance with the special needs and interests of art history concentrators. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credit hours. (F,W).

ARTH 402     Museums and Art in the Community     4 Credit Hours

This course introduces you to museums as sites of public interaction and exploration. You will study the history and missions of diverse museums, and their role in shaping public discourse on art, history and society. You will discuss critical issues for museums like repatriation of cultural property, roles and responsibilities of museum professionals, and the importance of diversity and inclusion in collecting and exhibiting. This course also surveys career opportunities through field trips and discussions with museum professionals (curators, collection managers; educators, conservators, etc.). This class culminates in the creating of an exhibition. (AY).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 305 or ARTH 311 or ARTH 312 or ARTH 313 or ARTH 315 or ARTH 319 or ARTH 321 or ARTH 322 or ARTH 327 or ARTH 331 or ARTH 332 or ARTH 333 or ARTH 334 or ARTH 335 or ARTH 341 or ARTH 342 or ARTH 343 or ARTH 344 or ARTH 351 or ARTH 352 or ARTH 360 or ARTH 361 or ARTH 362 or ARTH 363 or ARTH 364 or ARTH 365 or ARTH 366 or ARTH 367 or ARTH 368 or ARTH 375 or ARTH 384 or ARTH 385 or ARTH 392 or ARTH 400 or ARTH 416 or ARTH 425 or ARTH 426 or ARTH 427 or ARTH 428 or ARTH 434 or ARTH 454 or ARTH 469

ARTH 416     Earl Mod Jpn Paint&Wood Prnts     3 Credit Hours

Paintings and woodblock prints of the Edo/Tokugawa (1600-1868) and Meiji (1868-1912) periods are considered in light of competing developments that on the one hand looked to Japan's classical tradition and on the other to the influence of art and artists from China and the West. Special attention is given to female artists and images of women. Students cannot receive credit for both ARTH/WGST 416 and ARTH/WGST 516. (OC).

Cannot enroll if Class is Graduate

ARTH 425     Women in Classical Antiquity     3 Credit Hours

This course examines the evidence for the lives of women in Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquity, from the Bronze Age through the Imperial Period. Special emphasis will be placed on the archaeological evidence, especially works of art which illustrate women's lives and their relationships with men. Documents such as dedicatory and funerary inscriptions, the poetry of Sappho and Sulpicia, and selections from the writings of Homer, Hesiod, Aristotle, Pliny, Juvenal, and other ancient authors, will also be examined critically, particularly in relationship to the works of art. Students cannot receive credit for both ARTH 425 and ARTH 525. (YR).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

Cannot enroll if Class is Graduate

ARTH 426     City of Ancient Rome     3 Credit Hours

This course will focus on the ancient city of Rome, from its foundation to its precipitous decline in the fifth century AD. It will explore the public art and architecture of the city, emphasizing the different types of evidence available (topography, architecture, sculpture, texts) for understanding the history, politics, religion, and urban development of Rome, as well as the various art historical and archaeological techniques used to analyze the evidence. (OC)

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103

ARTH 427     Greek Architecture     3 Credit Hours

The architectural vocabulary established during the centuries of classical Greek civilization influences our culture to the present day. This course explores the history and development of this fundamental architectural tradition, focusing on the Greek temple, sanctuaries and holy sites, urban planning and public works, and domestic space. Students discuss the philosophical underpinnings of Greek architectural design, the engineering practices of Greek builders, as well as the cultural and social influences on Greek buildings and cities. This course begins with the emergence of humble mudbrick and timber buildings from the Dark Ages and continues through the height of cosmopolitan urban luxury in the 2nd century AD.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

Can enroll if Level is Undergraduate

ARTH 428     Roman Art and Memory     3 Credit Hours

In this course, we examine Roman art closely associated with personal commemoration and cultural memory, including portraiture, funerary monuments, imperial monuments, and public architecture. We explore these objects’ relationship to Roman literary culture’s theories of mnemotechnics, and in the social context of the Roman obsession with memory perpetuation. We also examine how art historians apply modern theories of collective and social memory in their scholarship on Roman art, creating new ways of understanding Roman sculpture, painting, and architecture. Finally, we investigate Roman spectacle and performance as a vehicle of cultural memory. Students cannot earn credit for both ARTH 428 and ARTH/LIBS 528.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

Can enroll if Level is Undergraduate

ARTH 434     Renaissance and Baroque Rome     3 Credit Hours

The return of the papacy in 1420 initiated the reemergence of Rome as a major cultural center. This course examines painting, sculpture, architecture, and urban planning in Rome from the 15th to the 17th century, including the work of Raphael, Michelangelo, Bernini, Borromini, and Caravaggio. Topics to be explored include the birth of Renaissance archaeology and antiquarianism; humanism and the papal curia; urban renewal and conservation; pilgrimage and sacred topography; the “myth of Rome”; architecture of churches, villas, and palaces; tourism and the city as spectacle. This course is structured as a seminar that is writing and research-intensive.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

ARTH 454     Rembrandt     3 Credit Hours

Rembrandt's paintings, drawings, and prints are considered in the full historical and cultural context of the Golden Age of the Northern Netherlands, a period of unprecedented wealth and cultural diversity. Special attention will be given to issues of style, iconography, biography, art criticism, gender, patronage and artistic technique. Students cannot receive credit for both ARTH 454 and ARTH 554. (YR).

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

Cannot enroll if Class is Graduate

ARTH 469     Collage, Montage, Assemblage     3 Credit Hours

Different conceptions of collage, montage, and assemblage have vitally shaped artistic practice in the twentieth century, perhaps even more so than the advent of modernist abstraction. The modern phenomenon of collecting, mixing, and sampling that permeates the last century up to and including the contemporary moment will be traced in the class across the thresholds of painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and film. We will discuss a wide range of movements, genres, and styles (Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism, Dada, Weimar and Russian photomontage, Soviet film, found footage film, French decollage, postwar assemblage) and their relation to the ever-changing mass media, the urban, and the modernized - in short, the everyday. The last segment of the class addressed more recent interpretations of the collage paradigm, including installation art and digital applications. Student cannot receive credit for both ARTH 469 and ARTH 569.

Prerequisite(s): ARTH 101 or ARTH 102 or ARTH 103 or ARTH 104 or ARTH 106

*An asterisk denotes that a course may be taken concurrently.

Frequency of Offering

The following abbreviations are used to denote the frequency of offering: (F) fall term; (W) winter term; (S) summer term; (F, W) fall and winter terms; (YR) once a year; (AY) alternating years; (OC) offered occasionally